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Oil Mediums and Varnishes - Info only

Oils, lacquers, turpentine, and additives comprise a group of painting auxiliary materials. Skillful use of mediums, including mixing them with paints, applying thin preliminary layers of lacquer in multilayer painting, finishing a fully dried painting with lacquer for a sheen or matte finish, etc.,  facilitates the achievement of desired effects and increases the life of a painting.

Carefully chosen natural ingredients such as natural tars, linseed oil and soft resin turpentine are used for manufacturing these auxiliary materials.

Traditional oil painting techniques often begin with the artist sketching the subject onto the canvas with charcoal or thinned paint. Oil paint is usually mixed with linseed oil, artist grade mineral spirits or other solvents to create a thinner, faster or slower drying paint. A basic rule of oil paint application is 'fat over lean.' This means that each additional layer of paint should contain more oil than the layer below to allow proper drying. If each additional layer contains less oil, the final painting will crack and peel. There are many other media that can be used in oil painting, including cold wax, resins, and varnishes. These additional media can aid the painter in adjusting the translucency of the paint, the sheen of the paint, the density or 'body' of the paint, and the ability of the paint to hold or conceal the brushstroke. These variables are closely related to the expressive capacity of oil paint.

Linseed Oil
Linseed oil is made from the seeds of the flax plant. It adds gloss and transparency to paints and is available in several forms. Linseed oil dries the most thoroughly of all the oils used as mediums. Use linseed oil for an underpainting or in the bottom layers of any oil painting done wet-on-dry. Refined linseed oil is a popular, all-purpose, pale to light yellow oil which dries withing three to five days. Cold-pressed linseed oil dries slightly faster than refined linseed oil and is considered to be the best quality linseed oil.
Stand oil is a thicker processed form of linseed oil, with a slower drying time (about a week to be dry to the touch, though it will remain tacky for some time). It's ideal for glazing (when mixed with a diluent or solvent such as turpentine) and produces a smooth, enamel-like finish without any visible brush marks.

Turpentines
Turpentine (also called spirit of turpentine, oil of turpentine, wood turpentine and gum turpentine) is a fluid obtained by the distillation of resin from trees, mainly pine trees.
Turpentines are used as thinners for artistic oil paints and lacquers as well as for removing paints from the tools (cleaning brushes, palettes, etc.).
They:
- evaporate quickly
- increase penetration of oils in paints in between layers increasing the durability of paint layers
- improve visual qualities of paints.
Pinenes form the primary constituents of turpentine. As the name suggests, pinenes are important constituents of pine resin.


Varnishes
Lacquers or varnishes are solutions of natural tars and oils in fluid turpentine used traditionally in manufacturing of lacquers.
Lacquers are used:
- as additives for oil paints during painting (lacquers for the palette) to prevent wrinkling and dimming of layers of paints, to preserve brightness and purity of colours, to increase intensity of hue and to decrease the possibility of appearance of a yellow tint in the film
- as intermediary layers in order to prevent tarnishing and to increase adhesiveness of layers of paint
- for protecting paintings
- for fixating pencil, charcoal or pastel drawings (fixative)
.
 


 Bleached refined linseed oil
It is used in oil painting as a diluent and retarder. Preparation and processing of oil are made very thoroughly: it is purified, washed, dried, bleached.
- excellent spreadability of the colour diluted by linseed oil
- transparency
- retarding the drying time of the paint film

Code: 2333912 Plastic bottle 120 ml
Code:2332912 Plastic bottle 220 ml


 Stand linseed oil
It is used in oil painting as a diluent and retarder. Its film is more waterproof, goes yellow less than bleached refined linseed oil. It is recommended to add it for glazing (using diluent). Stand linseed oil gives better optic qualities to colours.

Code: 2333925 Plastic bottle 120 ml
Code: 2332925 Plastic bottle 220 m
 Oil diluent
Application: dilution of artists' oil paints. It consists of a solution of bleached refined linseed oil in white-spirit with addition of siccative. It consists of solution of bleached refined linseed oil in white-spirit with addition of siccative.

Code: 2433903 Plastic bottle 120 ml
Code: 2432903 Plastic bottle 220 ml
 Diluent №1
Application: dilution of artists' oil paints, penta-oil, alkyd paints and washing paints off the canvases, palettes,brushes. Do not fit for dilution of varnishes. It consists of mixed turpentine oil and white-spirit.

Code: 2433900 Plastic bottle on 120 ml
Code: 2432900 Plastic bottle 220 ml
  Diluent №2
Application: dilution of artists' oil paints, penta-oil, alkyd paints and washing paints off the canvases, palettes, brushes. Do not fit for dilution of varnishes. It consists of 100% white-spirit.

Code: 2433901 Plastic bottle 120 ml
Code: 2432901 Plastic bottle 220 ml
 
Diluent №4
Application: dilution of artists' oil paints and varnishes. It consists of pinene fraction of turpentine.

Code: 2433902 Plastic bottle 120 ml
Code: 2433902 Plastic bottle 220 ml
 
Diluent «Tee»
Application: dilution of artists' oil paints and as an interim layer to intensify adhesion of paint layers. It consists of dammar varnish, linseed oil and pinene fraction of turpentine.

Code: 2433918 Plastic bottle 120 ml
Code: 2432918 Plastic bottle 220 ml
 Dammar varnish
Application: dilution of oil colours and covering of finished paintings. Composition: solution of dammar gum in pinen. Properties: varnish film is reversible, after drying is easily diluted in solvent. Drying time is 12 hours.

Code: 2533905 Plastic bottle 120 ml
 Fixative varnish
Application: fixation of drawings made with pencil, charcoal or pastel. It is applied on the surface with the pulverizer. Composition: solution of polyvinyl acetate mixed with butyl and ethyl alcohol.

Code: 2533910 Plastic bottle 120 ml
 Retouching varnish
Application: as an interim layer to prevent corrugation and intensify adhesion of paint layers. Composition: solution of dammar gum and softening agent in white-spirit with active solvents. Properties: varnish film is reversible, after drying it is easily diluted in solvent.

Code: 2533911 Plastic bottle 120 ml
 Fir varnish
Application: dilution of oil paints. Composition: solution of fir gum in pinen. Properties: varnish film is reversible, after drying it is easily diluted in solvent. Drying time is 4 hours.

Code: 2533909 Plastic bottle 120 m